Dating bipolar women
Even when family and friends recognize mood swings , the individual will often deny that anything is wrong. These symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. A major depressive episode persists for at least two weeks, and may result in suicide if left untreated. The earlier the age of onset, the more likely the first few episodes are to be depressive. In bipolar disorder, mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of both mania and depression occur simultaneously.
Associated features are clinical phenomena that often accompany the disorder but are not part of the diagnostic criteria. In adults with the condition, bipolar disorder is often accompanied by changes in cognitive processes and abilities. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder can be complicated by coexisting comorbid psychiatric conditions including the following: obsessive-compulsive disorder , substance-use disorder , eating disorders , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, social phobia , premenstrual syndrome including premenstrual dysphoric disorder , or panic disorder.
The causes of bipolar disorder likely vary between individuals and the exact mechanism underlying the disorder remains unclear. For bipolar disorder type I, the rate at which identical twins same genes will both have bipolar disorder type I concordance is estimated at around 40 percent, compared to about 5 percent in fraternal twins. There is overlap with major unipolar depression and if this is also counted in the co-twin the concordance with bipolar disorder rises to 67 percent in identical twins and 19 percent in fraternal twins.
Behavioral genetic studies have suggested that many chromosomal regions and candidate genes are related to bipolar disorder susceptibility with each gene exerting a mild to moderate effect. Although the first genetic linkage finding for mania was in ,  the linkage studies have been inconsistent. Due to the inconsistent findings in a genome-wide association study , multiple studies have undertaken the approach of analyzing single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs in biological pathways. Findings point strongly to heterogeneity, with different genes being implicated in different families.
Bipolar disorder is associated with reduced expression of specific DNA repair enzymes and increased levels of oxidative DNA damages. Advanced paternal age has been linked to a somewhat increased chance of bipolar disorder in offspring, consistent with a hypothesis of increased new genetic mutations. Psychosocial factors play a significant role in the development and course of bipolar disorder, and individual psychosocial variables may interact with genetic dispositions. Less commonly, bipolar disorder or a bipolar-like disorder may occur as a result of or in association with a neurological condition or injury.
Conditions like these and injuries include stroke , traumatic brain injury , HIV infection , multiple sclerosis , porphyria , and rarely temporal lobe epilepsy. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies in bipolar disorder report decreased volume in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex ACC , fronto-insular cortex , ventral prefrontal cortex, and claustrum. Increases have been reported in the volume of the lateral ventricles , globus pallidus , subgenual anterior cingulate , and amygdala as well as in the rates of deep white matter hyperintensities.
On the other hand, pretreatment hyperactivity in the amygdala is reduced post-treatment but is still increased relative to controls, suggesting that it is a trait marker. Manic and depressive episodes tend to be characterized by ventral versus dorsal dysfunction in the ventral prefrontal cortex.
During attentional tasks and resting, mania is associated with decreased orbitofrontal cortex activity, while depression is associated with increased resting metabolism. Consistent with affective disorders due to lesions , mania and depression are lateralized in vPFC dysfunction, with depression primarily being associated with the left vPFC, and mania the right vPFC. Abnormal vPFC activity, along with amygdala hyperactivity is found during euthymia as well as in healthy relatives of those with bipolar, indicating possible trait features.
Euthymic bipolar people show decreased activity in the lingual gyrus , while people who are manic demonstrate decreased activity in the inferior frontal cortex , while no differences were found in people with bipolar depression. One proposed model for bipolar disorder suggests that hypersensitivity of reward circuits consisting of frontostriatal circuits causes mania, and hyposensitivity of these circuits causes depression.
According to the "kindling" hypothesis, when people who are genetically predisposed toward bipolar disorder experience stressful events, the stress threshold at which mood changes occur becomes progressively lower, until the episodes eventually start and recur spontaneously.
There is evidence supporting an association between early-life stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPA axis leading to its overactivation, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Some of the brain components which have been proposed to play a role are the mitochondria  and a sodium ATPase pump.
Dopamine , a known neurotransmitter responsible for mood cycling, has been shown to have increased transmission during the manic phase. This results in decreased dopamine transmission characteristic of the depressive phase. Glutamate is significantly increased within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the manic phase of bipolar disorder, and returns to normal levels once the phase is over.
Medications used to treat bipolar may exert their effect by modulating intracellular signaling, such as through depleting myo- inositol levels, inhibition of cAMP signaling , and through altering G coupled proteins. Decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid , a byproduct of serotonin , are present in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with bipolar disorder during both the depressed and manic phases.
Increased dopaminergic activity has been hypothesized in manic states due to the ability of dopamine agonists to stimulate mania in people with bipolar disorder. Low plasma GABA levels on both sides of the mood spectrum have been found. VMAT2 binding was found to be increased in one study of people with bipolar mania. Bipolar disorder is commonly diagnosed during adolescence or early adulthood, but onset can occur throughout the life cycle. In diagnosis, caregiver-scored rating scales, specifically the mother, has been found to be more accurate than teacher and youth report in predicting identifying youths with bipolar disorder.
The ICD criteria are used more often in clinical settings outside of the U.
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Several rating scales for the screening and evaluation of bipolar disorder exist,  including the Bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale , Mood Disorder Questionnaire , the General Behavior Inventory and the Hypomania Checklist. There are several other mental disorders with symptoms similar to those seen in bipolar disorder.
These disorders include schizophrenia , major depressive disorder,  attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. Neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis , complex partial seizures , strokes , brain tumors, Wilson's disease , traumatic brain injury , Huntington's disease , and complex migraines can mimic features of bipolar disorder.
Infectious causes of mania that may appear similar to bipolar mania include herpes encephalitis , HIV , influenza , or neurosyphilis. A review of current and recent medications and drug use is considered to rule out these causes; common medications that can cause manic symptoms include antidepressants, prednisone , Parkinson's disease medications, thyroid hormone , stimulants including cocaine and methamphetamine , and certain antibiotics.
Bipolar spectrum disorders includes: bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder and cases where subthreshold symptoms are found to cause clinically significant impairment or distress. Unipolar hypomania without accompanying depression has been noted in the medical literature. The DSM-5 lists three specific subtypes: . When relevant, specifiers for peripartum onset and with rapid cycling should be used with any subtype.
Individuals who have subthreshold symptoms that cause clinically significant distress or impairment, but do not meet full criteria for one of the three subtypes may be diagnosed with other specified or unspecified bipolar disorder. Other specified bipolar disorder is used when a clinician chooses to provide an explanation for why the full criteria were not met e. Most people who meet criteria for bipolar disorder experience a number of episodes, on average 0. It is defined as having four or more mood disturbance episodes within a one-year span and is found in a significant proportion of individuals with bipolar disorder.
Attempts at prevention of bipolar disorder have focused on stress such as childhood adversity or highly conflictual families which, although not a diagnostically specific causal agent for bipolar, does place genetically and biologically vulnerable individuals at risk for a more severe course of illness. There are a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques used to treat bipolar disorder.
Individuals may use self-help and pursue recovery. Hospitalization may be required especially with the manic episodes present in bipolar I.
This can be voluntary or local legislation permitting involuntary called civil or involuntary commitment. Long-term inpatient stays are now less common due to deinstitutionalization , although these can still occur. These are sometimes referred to as partial-inpatient programs. Psychotherapy is aimed at alleviating core symptoms, recognizing episode triggers, reducing negative expressed emotion in relationships, recognizing prodromal symptoms before full-blown recurrence, and, practicing the factors that lead to maintenance of remission.
Most studies have been based only on bipolar I, however, and treatment during the acute phase can be a particular challenge. A number of medications are used to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium and the anticonvulsants carbamazepine , lamotrigine , and valproic acid are used as mood stabilizers to treat bipolar disorder. These mood stabilizers are used for long-term mood stabilization but have not demonstrated the ability to quickly treat acute bipolar depression.
It is less effective in preventing relapse than lithium or valproate. Antipsychotic medications are effective for short-term treatment of bipolar manic episodes and appear to be superior to lithium and anticonvulsants for this purpose. Antidepressants are not recommended for use alone in the treatment of bipolar disorder and have not been found to be of any benefit over that found with mood stabilizers.
Short courses of benzodiazepines may be used in addition to other medications until mood stabilizing become effective. Contrary to widely held views, stimulants are relatively safe in bipolar disorder, and considerable evidence suggests they may even produce an antimanic effect. In cases of comorbid ADHD and bipolar, stimulants may help improve both conditions. Several studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects on depressive symptoms, but not manic symptoms. However, only a few small studies of variable quality have been published and there is not enough evidence to draw any firm conclusions.
A lifelong condition with periods of partial or full recovery in between recurrent episodes of relapse,   bipolar disorder is considered to be a major health problem worldwide because of the increased rates of disability and premature mortality. Compliance with medications is one of the most significant factors that can decrease the rate and severity of relapse and have a positive impact on overall prognosis.
Of the various types of the disorder, rapid cycling four or more episodes in one year is associated with the worst prognosis due to higher rates of self-harm and suicide. Early recognition and intervention also improve prognosis as the symptoms in earlier stages are less severe and more responsive to treatment. For women, better social functioning prior to developing bipolar disorder and being a parent are protective towards suicide attempts.
People with bipolar disorder often experience a decline in cognitive functioning during or possibly before their first episode, after which a certain degree of cognitive dysfunction typically becomes permanent, with more severe impairment during acute phases and moderate impairment during periods of remission. As a result, two-thirds of people with BD continue to experience impaired psychosocial functioning in between episodes even when their mood symptoms are in full remission.
Higher degrees of impairment correlate with the number of previous manic episodes and hospitalizations, and with the presence of psychotic symptoms. Despite the overly ambitious goals that are frequently part of manic episodes, symptoms of mania undermine the ability to achieve these goals and often interfere with an individual's social and occupational functioning. One third of people with BD remain unemployed for one year following a hospitalization for mania. A naturalistic study from first admission for mania or mixed episode representing the hospitalized and therefore most severe cases found that 50 percent achieved syndromal recovery no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis within six weeks and 98 percent within two years.
Within two years, 72 percent achieved symptomatic recovery no symptoms at all and 43 percent achieved functional recovery regaining of prior occupational and residential status. However, 40 percent went on to experience a new episode of mania or depression within 2 years of syndromal recovery, and 19 percent switched phases without recovery. Symptoms preceding a relapse prodromal , specially those related to mania, can be reliably identified by people with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal attempts. Individuals whose bipolar disorder begins with a depressive or mixed affective episode seem to have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of suicide. Bipolar disorder is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide and has a lifetime prevalence of about 1 to 3 percent in the general population.
Including sub-threshold diagnostic criteria, such as one or two symptoms over a short time-period, an additional 5. There are conceptual and methodological limitations and variations in the findings. In addition, diagnoses and therefore estimates of prevalence vary depending on whether a categorical or spectrum approach is used.
Bipolar disorder - Wikipedia
This consideration has led to concerns about the potential for both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. The incidence of bipolar disorder is similar in men and women  as well as across different cultures and ethnic groups. Age-standardized prevalence per , ranged from However, severity may differ widely across the globe. Disability-adjusted life year rates, for example, appear to be higher in developing countries, where medical coverage may be poorer and medication less available. Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years for the onset of bipolar disorder.
Variations in moods and energy levels have been observed as part of the human experience throughout history. The words " melancholia ", an old word for depression, and "mania" originated in Ancient Greece. Within the humoral theories, mania was viewed as arising from an excess of yellow bile, or a mixture of black and yellow bile. The linguistic origins of mania, however, are not so clear-cut. Several etymologies were proposed by the Ancient Roman physician Caelius Aurelianus , including the Greek word ania , meaning "to produce great mental anguish", and manos , meaning "relaxed" or "loose", which would contextually approximate to an excessive relaxing of the mind or soul.
These concepts were developed by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin — , who, using Kahlbaum 's concept of cyclothymia,  categorized and studied the natural course of untreated bipolar patients. He coined the term manic depressive psychosis , after noting that periods of acute illness, manic or depressive, were generally punctuated by relatively symptom-free intervals where the patient was able to function normally. The term "manic—depressive reaction " appeared in the first version of the DSM in , influenced by the legacy of Adolf Meyer.
There are widespread problems with social stigma , stereotypes, and prejudice against individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Kay Redfield Jamison , a clinical psychologist and professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , profiled her own bipolar disorder in her memoir An Unquiet Mind Several dramatic works have portrayed characters with traits suggestive of the diagnosis that has been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike. A notable example is Mr. Jones , in which Mr. Jones Richard Gere swings from a manic episode into a depressive phase and back again, spending time in a psychiatric hospital and displaying many of the features of the syndrome.
TV specials , for example the BBC 's Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive ,  MTV 's True Life : I'm Bipolar , talk shows, and public radio shows, and the greater willingness of public figures to discuss their own bipolar disorder, have focused on psychiatric conditions, thereby, raising public awareness. On April 7, , the nighttime drama on the CW network, aired a special episode where the character Silver was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The storyline was developed as part of the BBC's Headroom campaign. A link between mental illness and professional success or creativity has been suggested, including in accounts by Socrates , Seneca the Younger , and Cesare Lombroso.
Despite prominence in popular culture, the link between creativity and bipolar has not been rigorously studied. This area of study also is likely affected by confirmation bias. Some evidence suggests that some heritable component of bipolar disorder overlaps with heritable components of creativity. Probands of people with bipolar disorder are more likely to be professionally successful, as well as to demonstrate temperamental traits similar to bipolar disorder. Furthermore, while studies of the frequency of bipolar disorder in creative population samples have been conflicting, studies that have a positive finding report that full blown bipolar disorder is rare.
In the s, Emil Kraepelin noted that manic episodes are rare before puberty. This issue diminished with an increased following of the DSM criteria in the last part of the twentieth century. While in adults the course of bipolar disorder is characterized by discrete episodes of depression and mania with no clear symptomatology between them, in children and adolescents very fast mood changes or even chronic symptoms are the norm. The diagnosis of childhood bipolar disorder is controversial,  although it is not under discussion that the typical symptoms of bipolar disorder have negative consequences for minors suffering them.
Treatment involves medication and psychotherapy. Current research directions for bipolar disorder in children include optimizing treatments, increasing the knowledge of the genetic and neurobiological basis of the pediatric disorder and improving diagnostic criteria. There is a relative lack of knowledge about bipolar disorder in late life. There is evidence that it becomes less prevalent with age but nevertheless accounts for a similar percentage of psychiatric admissions; that older bipolar patients had first experienced symptoms at a later age; that later onset of mania is associated with more neurologic impairment; that substance abuse is considerably less common in older groups; and that there is probably a greater degree of variation in presentation and course, for instance individuals may develop new-onset mania associated with vascular changes, or become manic only after recurrent depressive episodes, or may have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder at an early age and still meet criteria.
There is also some weak and not conclusive evidence that mania is less intense and there is a higher prevalence of mixed episodes, although there may be a reduced response to treatment. Overall, there are likely more similarities than differences from younger adults. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Bipolar Disorders journal.
Bipolar Disorder & The Dating Game
For other uses, see Manic depression disambiguation. Main article: Major depressive disorder. Main article: Mixed affective state. Main article: Associated features of bipolar disorder. Further information: Biology of bipolar disorder. Main article: Treatment of bipolar disorder. Main article: History of bipolar disorder. See also: List of people with bipolar disorder , Category:Books about bipolar disorder , and Category:Films about bipolar disorder.
Main article: Bipolar disorder in children. Indian Journal of Psychiatry.
Dating With Bipolar Disorder
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The ups and downs of dating with bipolar
Journal of Affective Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry. Modern Love , the popular New York Times column turned Amazon anthology series , premieres today October 18 with a full lineup of talented stars— Tina Fey , Dev Patel, Julia Garner, and Andy Garcia among them—and each minute story takes viewers on a journey of self-discovery and love. Cheney knows firsthand how difficult it is to get right on screen. Anne captured it in a way that not only showed its anguish, but also moved the viewer to empathy. She can flirt over produce and get a promising date in minutes.
But then her depression plows through like a tornado. To prep for the role, Hathaway spoke at length with Cheney and used her memoir as a guide. Cheney hopes viewers will take away a greater understanding of how complicated mental illness can be and recognize when loved ones might be struggling. In particular, the final scene aims to change that.